Test Two

The siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus) is an arboreal black-furred gibbon native to the forests of Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. The largest of the gibbons, the siamang can be twice the size of other gibbons, reaching 1 m in height, and weighing up to 14 kg. The siamang is the only species in the genus Symphalangus.


The siamang is distinctive for two reasons. The first is that two digits on each foot are partially joined by a membrane—hence the name "syndactylus", from the Ancient Greek sun-, "united" + daktulos, "finger". The second is the large gular sac (found in both males and females of the species), which is a throat pouch that can be inflated to the size of the siamang's head, allowing it to make loud, resonating calls or songs.

Two subspecies of the siamang may exist. If so, they are the nominate Sumatran siamang (S. s. syndactylus) and the Malaysian siamang (S. s. continentis, in peninsular Malaysia).[3] Otherwise, the Malaysian individuals are only a population. The siamang occurs sympatrically with other gibbons; its two ranges are entirely within the combined ranges of the agile gibbon and the lar gibbon.

The siamang can live to around 40 years in captivity.[4]

While the illegal pet trade takes a toll on wild populations, the principal threat to the siamang is habitat loss in both Indonesia and Malaysia. The palm oil production industry is clearing large swaths of forest, reducing the habitat of the siamang, along with that of other species, such as the Sumatran tiger.

The siamang has long, dense, shaggy hair which is the darkest shade of all gibbons. The ape has long, gangling arms that are longer than its legs. The average length of a siamang is 90 cm, but the largest they have ever grown is 1 m 50 cm. The face of this large gibbon is mostly hairless apart from a thin mustache.

Distribution and habitat

The siamang inhabits the forest remnants of Sumatra Island and the Malay Peninsula, and is widely distributed from lowland forest to mountain forest—even rainforest—and can be found at altitudes up to 3800 m.[5] The siamang lives in groups of up to six individuals (four individuals on average) with an average home range of 23 hectares.[6][7] Their day ranges are substantially smaller than those of sympatric Hylobates species, often less than 1 km.[5] The siamang's melodious singing breaks the forest's silence in the early morning after the agile gibbons' or lar gibbons' calls. The siamang in Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula are similar in appearance, but some behaviors differ between the two populations.

Ecology and behaviour


The siamang eats mainly various parts of plants. The Sumatran siamang is more frugivorous than its Malayan relative, with fruit making up to 60% of its diet. The siamang eats at least 160 species of plants, from vines to woody plants. Its major food is figs (Ficus spp.[7][8] The siamang prefers to eat ripe rather than unripe fruit, and young rather than old leaves. It eats flowers and a few animals, mostly insects. When the siamang eats large flowers, it eats only the corollae (petals), but it eats all parts of smaller flowers, with the small fruit collected in its hand before being consumed. When it eats big and hard seeds or seeds with sharp edges, it peels out the fruit flesh and throws away the seed.[8] Although its diet consists of substantial portions of fruit, it is the most folivorous of all members of Hylobatidae.[5] As it is also the largest gibbon, it fits well with the general primate dietary trend in which larger primates tend to be more folivorous.[9]

Demography and population

A group of siamangs normally consists of an adult dominant male, an adult dominant female, with offspring, infants, and sometimes a subadult. The subadult usually leaves the group after attaining the age of 6–8 years; subadult females tend to leave the group earlier than subadult males. Siamang gestation period is between 6.2 and 7.9 months; after the infant is born, the mother takes care of the infant for the first year of its life.[10] Siamang males tend to offer more paternal care than do other members of the family Hylobatidae, taking up a major role in carrying an infant after it is about 8 months old.[5] The infant typically returns to its mother to sleep and nurse. The infant begins to travel independently from its parents by its third year of life.[11]

Siamangs are generally known to have monogamous mating pairs, which have been documented to spend more time in close proximity to each other, in comparison to other gibbon species.[12] However, both monogamous and polyandrous groups are found in south Sumatra.[10] In studying these populations, infants belonging to monogamous groups were found to receive more overall male care than infants in the polyandrous groups. This reduced care is most likely due to reduced certainty of paternity in these groups.[10]


Habitat disturbance affects siamang group composition; it is varied in age-sex structure between intact forest and burnt, regrown forest. The burnt, regrown forest population contained more adult and subadults than the intact forest population, which had more infants, small juveniles, and large juveniles. Infant survival rates in burnt, regrown forest groups are lower than in intact forest groups. The number of individuals in the latter is higher than in the former.[7] The siamang in disturbed forests live in small groups and have a density lower than in intact forests because of lack of food resources and trees for living.

In the 1980s, the Indonesian population of the siamang in the wild was estimated to be 360,000 individuals.[13] This seems overestimated today, as an example, Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park is the third-largest protected area (3,568 km²) in Sumatra, of which roughly 2,570 km² remain under forest cover inhabited by 22,390 siamangs (in 2002 censuses). In Sumatra, the siamang prefers to inhabit lowland forest between 500 and 1000 m above sea level.[6]


The siamang tends to rest for more than 50% of its waking period (from dawn to dusk), followed by feeding, moving, foraging, and social activities. It takes more rest during midday, taking time to groom others or play. During resting time, it usually uses a branch of a large tree, lying on its back or stomach. Feeding behaviors, foraging, and moving are most often in the morning and after resting time. Grooming is one of the most important social interactions among family members. Grooming takes place between the adults earlier in the day, and then the adults groom the juveniles later in the day. Adult males are the most involved in grooming.[11]